About Mizoram -> History
HISTORICAL BACKDROP: The origin of the Mizos, like those of many
other tribes in the North Eastern India is shrouded in mystery.
The generally accepted as part of a great Mongoloid wave of
migration from China and later moved out to India to their
It is possible that the Mizos came from Shinlung or Chhinlungsan
located on the banks of the river Yalung in China. They first
settled in the Shan State and moved on to Kabaw Valley to
Khampat and then to the Chin Hills in the middle of the 16th
The earliest Mizos who migrated to India were known as Kukis,
the second batch of immigrants were called New Kukis. The
Lushais were the last of the Mizo tribes migrate to India. The
Mizo history in the 18th and 19th Century is marked by many
instances of tribal raids and retaliatory expeditions of
security. Mizo Hills were formally declared as part of the
British-India by a proclamation in 1895. North and south hills
were united into Lushai Hills district in 1898 with Aizawl as
The process of the consolidated of the British administration in
tribal dominated area in Assam stated in 1919 when Lushai Hills
along with some other hill districts was declared a Backward
Tract under government of India Act. The tribal districts of
Assam including Lushai Hills were declared Excluded Area in
It was during the British regime that a political awakening
among the Mizos in Lushai Hills started taking shape the first
political party, the Mizo Common People's Union was formed on
9th April 1946. The Party was later renamed as Mizo Union. As
the day of Independence drew nearer, the Constituent Assembly of
India set up and Advisory Committee to deal with matters
relating to the minorities and the tribals. A sub-Committee,
under the chairmanship of Gopinath Bordoloi was formed to advise
the Constituent Assembly on the tribal affairs in the North
East. The Mizo Union submitted a resolution of this
Sub-committee demanding inclusion of all Mizo inhabited areas
adjacent to Lushai Hills. However, a new party called the United
Mizo Freedom (UMFO) came up to demand that Lushai Hills join
Burma after Independence.
Following the Bordoloi Sub-Committee's suggestion, a certain
amount of autonomy was accepted by the Government and enshrined
in the Six Schedule of the constitution. The Lushai Hills
Autonomous District Council came into being in 1952 followed by
the formation of these bodies led to the abolition of
chieftanship in the Mizo society.
The autonomy however met the aspirations of the Mizos only
partially. Representatives of the District Council and the Mizo
Union pleaded with the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in
1954 for integrated the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and
Manipur with their District Council in Assam.
The tribal leaders in the North East were laboriously unhappy
with the SRC Recommendation s : They met in Aizawl in 1955 and
formed a new political party, Eastern India Union (EITU) and
raised demand for a separate state comprising of all the hill
districts of Assam. The Mizo Union split and the breakaway
faction joined the EITU. By this time, the UMFO also joined the
EITU and then understanding of the Hill problems by the Chuliha
Ministry, the demand for a separate Hill state by EITU was kept
FACTS AND LEGEND:
But folklore has an interests tale of offer.
The Mizos, so goes the legend, emerged from under a large
covering rock known as Chhinlung. Two people of the Ralte clan,
known for their loquaciousness, started talking noisily while
coming out of the region. They made a great noise which leg God,
called Pathian by the Mizos, to throw up his hands in disgust
and say enough is enough. He felt, too many people had already
been allowed to step out and so closed the door with the rock.
History often varies from legends. But the story of the Mizos
getting out into open from the nether world through a rock
opening is now part of the Mizo fable. Chhinlung however, is
taken by some as the Chinese city of Sinlung or Chinlingsang
situated close on the sino-Burmese border. The Mizos have songs
and stories about the glory of the ancient Chhinlung
civilization handed down from one generation to another powerful
It is hard to tell how far the story is true. It is nevertheless
possible that the Mizos came from Sinlung or Chinlungsan located
on the banks of the river Yalung in China. According to
K.S.Latourette, there were political upheavals in China in 210
B.C. when the dynastic rule was abolished and the whole empire
was brought under one administrative system. Rebellions broke
out and chaos reigned throughout the Chinese State. That the
Mizos left China as part of one of those waves of migration.
Whatever the case may have been, it seems probable that the
Mizos mover from China to Burma and then to India under forces
of circumstances. They first settled in the Shan State after
having overcome the resistance put up by the indigenous people.
Then they changed settlements several times, moving from the
Shan State to Kabaw Valley to Khampat to Chin Hills in Burma.
They finally began to move across the river Tiau to India in the
Middle of the 16th Century.
The Shans had already been firmly settled in their State when
Mizos came there from Chhinlung around 5th Century. The Shans
did not welcome the new arrivals, but failed to throw the Mizos
out. The Mizos had lived happily in the Shan state for about 300
years before they moved on the Kabaw Valley around the 8th
It was in the Kabaw Valley that Mizos got the opportunity to
have an unhindered interaction with the local Burmese. The two
cultures met and the two tribes influenced each other in the
spheres of clothing, customs, music and sports. According to
some, the Mizos learnt the art of cultivation from the Burmese
at Kabaw. Many of their agricultural implements bore the prefix
Kawl which was the name given by the Mizos to the Burmese.
Khampat (now in Myanmar) is known to have been the next Mizo
settlement. The area claimed by the Mizos as their earliest
town, was encircled by an earthen rampart and divided into
several parts. The residence of the ruler stood at the central
block call Nan Yar (Palace Site). The construction of the town
indicates the Mizos had already acquired considerable
architecture skills. They are said to have planted a banyan tree
at Nan Yar before they left Khampat as a sign that town was made
The Mizos, in the early 14th century, came to settle at Chin
Hills on the Indo-Burmese border. They built villages and called
them by their clan names such as Seipui, Saihmun and Bochung.
The hill and difficult terrain of Chin Hills stood in the way of
the building of another central township like Khampat. The
villages were scattered so unsystematically that it was not
always possible for the various Mizo clans to keep in touch with
In 1959, Mizo Hills was devastated by a great
famine known in Mizo history as 'Mautam Famine' . The cause of
the famine was attributed to flowering of bamboos which
consequent resulted in rat population boom in large numbers.
After eating up bamboos seeds, the rats turned towards crops and
infested the huts and houses and became a plaque to the
The havoc created by the rats was terrible and very little of
the grain was harvested. For sustenance, many Mizos had to
collect roots and leaves from the jungles. Others moved out to
far away places edible roots and leaves from the jungles. Others
moved out to far away places while a considerable number died of
In his hour of darkness, many welfare organization tried their
best to help starving villagers to facilitate supplies to the
remove villages, no organised porters, animal transport to carry
the air-drop food supplies.
Earlier in 1955, Mizo Cultural Society was formed in 1955 and
Laldenga was its Secretary. In March 1960, the name of the Mizo
Cultural Society was changed to 'Mautam front' During the famine
of 1959-1960, this society took lead in demanding relief and
managed to attract the attention of all sections of the people.
In September 1960, the Society adopted the name of Mizo National
Famine Front (MNFF). The MNFF gained considerable popularity as
a large number of Mizo Youth assisted in transporting rice and
other essential commodities to interior villages.
The Mizo National Famine Front dropped the word
'Famine' and a new political oraganisation, the Mizo National
Front (MNF) was born on 22nd October 1961 under the leadership
of Laldenga with the specified goal of achieving sovereign
independence of Greater Mizoram. Large scale disturbances broke
out on 28th February 1966 government installations at Aizawl,
Lunglei, Chawngte, Chhimluang and other places simultaneously.
While the MNF took to violence to secure its goal of
establishing a sovereign land, other political forces in the
hills of Assam were striving for a separate state. The search
for a political solution to the problems facing the hill regions
in Assam continued.
The Mizo National Front was outlawed in 1967. The demand for
statehood was gained fresh momentum. A Mizo District Council
delegation, which met prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi in May
1971 demanded a full fledge state for the Mizos. The union
government in its own offered the proposal of turning Mizo Hills
into a Union Territory in July 1971. The Mizo leaders were ready
to accept the offer on condition into a Union Territory in July
1971. The Mizo leaders were ready to accept the offer on
condition that the status of U.T would be upgraded to statehood
sooner rather than later. The Union Territory of Mizoram came
into being on 21st January, 1972. Mizoram get two seats in
Parliament, one each in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha
BIRTH OF THE MIZORAM STATE:
Rajiv Gandhi's assumption of power
following his mother's death signaled the beginning of a new era
in Indian politics. Laldenga met the Prime Minister on 15th
February 1985. Some contentious issues, which could not be
resolved, during previous talks referred to him for his advice.
All trends indicated that neither the Centre nor the MNF would
pass up the opportunity that has now presented itself to have a
full lenient and flexible. New Delhi felt that Mizo problem had
been dragging on for the long a time, while the MNF was
convinced that bidding farewell to arms to live as respectable
Indian Citizens was the only ways of achieving peace and
Statehood was a prerequisite to the implementing of the accord
singed between the MNF and and the Union Government on 30 June
1986. The document was signed by Laldenga, on the behalf of MNF,
and the Union Home Secretary RD Pradhan on behalf of the
Government, Lalkhama Chief Secretary of Mizoram, too signed the
The MNF volunteers came out of their hiding and surrendered arms
to makeshift bamboo huts up for the purpose at Parva and Marpara.
A total of 614 activists gave themselves up in less than two
weeks in July. Large quantities of small and big firearms
including LMGs and rifles were received from them.
While the MNF kept its part of the bargain, the Centre initiated
efforts to raise the status of Mizoram to a full fledged State.
A constitution Amendment Bill and another to confer statehood on
Mizoram was passes in the Lok Sabha on 5 August 1986.
The formalization of Mizoram State took place on 20th February,
1987.Chief Secretary Lalkhama read out the proclamation of
statehood at a public meeting organised at Aizawl's Parade
Ground. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi flew in to Aizawl to
inaugurate the new state. Hiteshwar Saikia was appointed as
Governor of Mizoram.
PLACE OF INTEREST :
There are quite a number of places in
Mizoram which may be described as 'must see' for tourist sports,
anyone wishing to see a little more than the conventional
tourist sports, anyone interests to know about the local culture
and traditions is advised/expected to to do /visit some of the Mizoram's historic memorials and fabled caves scattered all over
the State. Traveling in Mizoram, not unlike in any other
mountainous regions, is pain staking and little hazardous at
times, but it has its own rewards.
Blue Mountain: The Highest peak in Mizoram, The Blue Mountain (Phawngpui)
is situated in Chhimtuipui district overlooking the bend of the
river Koldyne (Chhimtuipui) close on the state's border with
Myanmar. The peak 2,157 metre in height and encircled by bamboo
groves at the top where there is a level ground of about 200
hectares, offers a grand view of the height hills and the
meandering undulated valleys. The woods around are home to
various species of beautiful and rare flora and fauna.
Pukzing Cave: The largest cave in Mizoram, it is situated at Pukzing village near Marpara in the district of Aizawl district
(Mamit). Legend has it that cave was carved out of the hills
with the help of only a hair pin by a very strong man called
Milu Puk: In the Mizo language, puk means a cave. Situated near
Mamte village over 100 kms, from Lunglei town, the Milu Puk,
which is a large cave, was found many years ago to contain heaps
of human skeleton.
Lamsial Puk: Sitiuated near Farkawn village in Aizawl (Champhai)
district, the cave as a silent testimony to a battle between two
neighboring villages in which many lost their lives. The bodies
of the fighters from village Lamsial are said to have been kept
in the cave.
Kungawrhi Puk: Another cave in Aizawl district, it is situated
on a hill between Farkawn and Vaphai Villages. According to the
folktales, a beautiful young girl by the name of Kungawrhi was
abducted and kept confined in the forlorn cave by some evil
spirits when she was on her way to her husband's village.
Kungawrhi, however, was later rescued by her husband from the
prison of the spirits.
Sibuta Lung: Erected about three hundreds years ago by a tribal
chief, this memorial stone is named after him. The memorial
offer a story of jilted love and lust for revenge. Having been
rejected by a girl he fell headlong in love with, Sibuta went
mad for revenge and decided to raise a memorial to himself in a
manner which displayed an insane mind. A huge rock awash with
the blood of three people sacrificed by Sibuta was carried over
a distance of 10 km from the Tlawng river. Darlalpuii, a
beautiful young girl, was crushed alive in a pit dug to erect
the mausoleum. The memorial was raised over Darlai who lost her
life under weight of the stone.
Phulpui Grave: A tale of love and tragedy also hangs by this
grave located at Phulpui village in Aizawl District. Tualvungi,
a raging beauty in her time, was married to Zawlpala, the
Phulpui chief. She was later forced by circumstances to marry
Phuntia, chief of another village. But Tualvungi could not
forget her first love. She came to Phulpui years after
Zawlpala's death, hah a pit dug by the side of his grave and
persuaded an old woman to kill and bury there.
Chhingpuii Memorial: Raised to the memory of a young woman
called Chhingpuii who was exceedingly beautiful, it is situated
between Baktawng and Chhingchhip villages on the Aizawl -
Lunglei Road. Chhingpuii, born to an aristocratic family,
selected Kaptluanga as her husband from among her many suitors.
But her happiness was short-lived, as a war broke out
afterwards. Chhingpuii was abducted and killed. A grief-stricken
Kaptluanga took his own life. The stone memorial reminds one of
the legendary love story of Chhingpuii and Kaptluanga.
Mangkhai Lung: A large memorial stone, it was erected about
three hundred years ago at Champhai to the memory of a
well-known Ralte chief, Mangkhaia.
Budha's Image: An engraved image of Lord Buddha, with those of
dancing girls on either side, was found at a site near Mualcheng
Village about 50 km from Lunglei town. The site also has another
stone slab on which some human footmarks and a few implements
like spearhead and Dao are engraved. The area is close to the
Chittagong Hill Tracts which was under which the Buddhist
influence a few centuries ago. It is assumed that some visiting
Buddhists from the Hill Tracts were responsible for the Buddha
Suangpuilawn Inscriptions: A stone slab lie by a stream at Suangpuilawn village in Aizawl district with strange words
inscribed on it. The inscription remain to be deciphered till
date. However, it is believed that the inscription were done by
some people who inhabited the area in ancient times.
Thangliana Lung: Captian T.H.Lewin was one of the first
Englishmen to come to Mizoram. The District Commissioner of the
Chittagong Hills Tracts, who entered Mizoram by way of Demagiri
(Tlabung) in 1865, became so popular with the local tribesmen
that as a mark of respect, he was called Thangliana which meant
'greatly famous'. He lived with the Mizos for nine years and
authored the first Lushai book. His memorial stone at Demagiri
remains as evidence of the extent of his popularity with the